Silo or farm tower for storing grain is a storage place of material in the form of granules and fluids. Usually the storage inside the silo must be in bulk form. The silo structure is made of steel or concrete. Reinforced concrete is the most common structural material in the manufacture of silos. This is because concrete can offer protection for the ingredients in it. In addition it requires less maintenance, and is relatively free from structural hazards (such as indentations).
The current silo function has a difference with the old silo. Currently silos not only as a means of storage, but have a greater role that is for manufacturing and distribution process. In addition silos are useful in the production process such as mixing, blending and proportioning. Now the distribution of materials stored in the silos causes a lot of demand for large capacity silos.
The Advantages of Storage with Silo
Storage with bulk systems inside silos has the following advantages:
- Grains can be handled like fluid that can flow and facilitate the movement of materials.
- No need for sack wrapping.
- Quality control is more efficient and effective.
- Silos need a place that is not wider than sack system storage in the same quantity.
- Agricultural storage can also be done for longer periods with lower losses.
Storage Facility in Silo
Silos are used to store agricultural products, minerals, mineral processing, chemicals and industrial materials. The use of silos is not only for finished materials, but also for raw and semi-finished materials. Use of silos in groups or singles, sometimes as terminal goods for receiving and shipping of goods. Such terminals usually include multiple transport modes. Examples of silo use as a terminal are as follows: the material arrives by ship is then stored in the terminal for a while. After that it is channeled through trucks, trains or other ships for shipping to various places.
Basic Requirements Storage with Silo
Each will do the development with any type must have certain conditions. As with storage with Silo also has basic requirements, including:
- The moisture content in the seeds should be low.
- Grains should be free of dirt and dust.
- Silos should be ventilated.
- Must be watertight and unaffected by weather and free from the effects of solar radiation.
- Equipped with conveyors and bucket elevators.
The design process for the silo structure takes into account 2 things that is in terms of function and structural. The function design should be based on the volume of silo capacity, proper protection of the stored material, and the method of filling and discharging silos. The structure’s considerations are the stability, strength and control of the crack width and deflection. Expenses considered include:
- Load die from own weight of silo structure
- The live load, as follows:
- Styles due to stored material.
- Load due to charging and discharging silos.
- Wind loads.
- Earthquake load on structures and materials stored.
- Temperature load from material.
Airtight storage in addition to inhibiting the biological activity of seeds, also serves to suppress the influence of environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity. It also reduces the availability of oxygen, pest contamination, fleas, fungi, bacteria, and impurities. Initial moisture content and packaging materials (wrappings) are very influential in maintaining seed moisture during storage.